Here's a couple of areas to hit on before your Instrument or CFI-I checkride. I've posted on these in the past but they sure keep cropping up as problem areas:
1. Basic Weather knowledge: The ACS is pretty clear on weather knowledge in Areas of Operations I. Being able to recognize Cold and Warm fronts and what conditions could lead to thunderstorms or icing is pretty much essential.
2. Alternate planing: When is an alternate required? Believe it or not, it's more than just the 1,2,3 and the 600x2 or 800x2 rule. First of all, you destination must have an IAP. If it does then you can apply the 1,2,3 rule. If the weather fails the 1,2,3 rule you must pick an alternate. You may pick an alternate airport that does not have an IAP but the weather must be such that you can descend from the MEA to the surface under Basic VFR requirements. If the weather isn't that good you must pick an alternate airport but first look at each IAP at that airport. If it s got an A in a triangle with an NA next to it, you can not consider that IAP for alternate planning purposes. If the IAP just has an A in a triangle that means non-standard alternate minimums apply. You must look in the Terminal Procedures Supplement to see what the restrictions are. The restrictions could raise the weather requirements or may make the approach not available when the tower is closed. If you look at the IAP does have alternate minimum requirements then you may apply the 600x2 to precision approach or 800x2 to non-precision approaches.
3. A benefit of having WAAS: If you have WAAS installed on your aircraft, you may use a destination and select an alternate of which both just have RNAV approaches. No ground based approaches are required.
4. Are RNAV approaches with LPV minimums a Precision approach?: No. What does that mean for alternate planning? It means that the 800x2 weather requirements apply when using an RNAV approach at your alternate (unless non-standard alternate minimums apply).
5. Identifying the MAP: How do you know you're at the MAP on a VOR, LOC, LOC BC, or RNAV approach? If you have a GPS there are usually 2 or 3 ways to do this. Many applicants struggle with naming one.
6. IAP notes: I call them the notes that can kill. Why? because they can (and do). When you do your approach brief, how will those notes on the IAP effect you? Can you use the altitmeter from that airport 30 miles away? If the approach lights are out how will it effect my ceiling and visibility? Can I use that VDP on the LPV?
7. Flight planning: (big one for CFI-I) What things should you consider when planning a route? Prefered IFR routes, SID, ODP, STARS, Airspace, terrain, Weather. If I back up 4 years ago before Foreflight and Garmin Pilot these where a 5 minute discussion. Now most applicants pick the most common route from thier iPad app and use it. Don't get lazy!
8. Fuel planning: Do you consider the time it take to shoot an IAP at your destination and alternate into your fuel burns? Should you? Are you required to? I'll let you in on this.... You are required to consider those fuel burns in your flight planning by legal interpretation.
9. NOTAMS: Are there any NOTAMS that will effect todays flight? There have been several applicants that have busted MDA or DA and didn't even know it. Some have flown the wrong miss approach procedure because of missing a NOTAM.
10. Lost Com procedure: MEA and AVE-F are often quoted by rarely put to use. There will be a scenario where the rule will be put to use. There have been several people that have told me stuff that directly contradicts the rule. Since this is an emergency, I have the rule on my Lost Com check list.