A Question from AOPA
Question: I have separate logbooks for engine, airframe, and propeller. Can you clarify which aircraft logbook is required to have the annual inspection endorsement?
Answer: The annual inspection should be logged in the airframe logbook. Advisory Circular 43-9C states in paragraph 10(d), “When an owner maintains a single record, the entry of the 100-hour or annual inspection is made in that record. If the owner maintains separate records for the airframe, powerplants, and propellers, the entry for the 100-hour inspection is entered in each, while the annual inspection is only required to be entered into the airframe record.”
Got a question for our technical services staff? Email email@example.com or call the Pilot Information Center, 800/872-2672. Don’t forget the online archive of “Final Exam” questions and answers, searchable by keyword or topic.
Commercial Pilot Privies?
You have been hired by the local FBO. They want you to start sight seeing rides remaining within 25NM. Can you just put an ad in the local paper and start flying that new 172 the FBO on these flight? What FARs do you need to comply with to keep the FSDO happy? That's a good question with an easy answer. About 7 years ago the FAA published CFR 91.147 which address this. In order to do sight seeing rides within 25NM you need to have a LOA from the local FSDO and a drug and alcohol testing program. Of course your aircraft has to be maintained to commerical standards (think 100 hr inspection etc).
Another question. A little old lady owns a C-172 and wants you to fly her and her pretty little dog to the Mall of American up near MSP. She is willing to pay you $500 for your services. Can you do this? What if this little old lady want you to fly her up to MSP in your 172 can you do that? The answers to these questions might not be as easy as they appear. A little research in FAA legal interpatations and case law will show that one of those scenerios is legal and the other is not.
Paper Pilot Certificates
If you have already replaced your paper pilot certificate, then this message is not for you. On the other hand, if your pilot certificate is still printed on paper, please read carefully.
The FAA is under a mandate to replace all paper certificates with plastic certificates. If you do not replace your paper certificate on or before March 31, 2013, you will no longer be able to exercise your privileges! As a matter of fact, if you currently have only a paper pilot certificate you are not legal to fly until you get the plastic one. The grace period for pilots was up a year ago.
All certificated Airmen, including mechanics, repairmen, pilots, etc., are required to replace their paper copy with a plastic copy, or they will no longer be able to exercise the privileges of that certificate.
The best way to get a new replacement certificate is to follow the instructions at http://www.faa.gov/licenses_certificates/airmen_certification/certificate_replacement/.
The replacement cost is $2.00, unless you still have your Social Security Number on your certificate and you ask to have it removed.
Avoid the Rush! Apply today!
The day that Albert Einstein most feared may have finally arrived, stated the email with photos of people at the beach, in a car, out to eat, all playing with their cell phones or other electronic devises instead of interacting with their environment of other people. "I fear the day that technology will surpass our human interaction. The world will have a generation of idiots," Einstein said.
Commercial airlines are now training their pilots to hand fly at lower altitudes and re-learning to not type instructions into the aircraft's computer. Emergency landing training for a power failure for our training airplanes is not to go to the GPS to find the nearest airport but to fly the plane with the sequence of airspeed, wind direction, and a place to land. What about stick and rudder skills and our awareness and attention to our environment and flying the plane?
Let's look at an hour of dual instruction from the back seat of my Citabria. The back seat is the "office" of the Certified Flight Instructor in that airplane due to the requirement of the student to solo from the front seat. We may find some useful insight in our observation. Before we get into the plane there will be a briefing for spin training, basic aerobatics, and tail-wheel training that will go like this:
"Your landing may be good but since you have only flown tri-cycle gear airplanes you will probably forget to hold the control stick in your lap during the landing. All three wheels should touch down at the same time. In the back seat I will be aft of the center of gravity so I will be able to detect the slightest of any uncoordinated turns. Remember the C.G. is aft of the main wheels on landing and has a longer arm, or distance, to use as a force to keep you on your toes during the landing roll. During aerobatics you will probably lose your orientation to the horizon. Knowing where the horizon is at all times is essential to maintaining control of the airplane. During spins you will find it easier to exit and recover than to enter the spin. If you relax back pressure the plane will not stay stalled and will enter a spiral. With the spiral you will have an increase of airspeed and if not recovered the increased speed may make the wings come off of the plane! Okay, let's go fly!"
Level at 3,000 feet the aerobatic placard is consulted for an entry speed for the loop. The nose of the plane is lowered and at 140 mph back stick is applied bring the nose of the plane up through the horizon until earth disappears with only the blue of sky seen through the windshield. The roar of the engine is just below red line on the RPMs and the force of 2 G's push us down into the seats. Soon the brown and green of ground reappears in the windshield. The student recognizes "home" and heads straight down in a vertical dive toward the ground! Power off, stick pulled slowly back, find the horizon, and the loop has been salvaged into safe straight and level flight. Our briefing about never losing sight of the horizon was forgotten.
Next is a one turn spin. Power off, stick back in your lap, stall, full left rudder, and the horizon drops away as once again the brown and green of earth start to rotate. Feeling uncomfortable the student relaxes a slight amount of back pressure on the stick. I watch as airspeed rapidly increased and G force rapidly builds! Power off, right stick and rudder out of the left descending turn, now back to the horizon and the spin is correctly changed from a spiral to a correct recovery ... showing 4G's on the instrument in front of the student!
A few more practice tries with the spin and loop bring success along with a loop connected to a half roll to form a Cuban Eight. Proud of our success and a glance at my watch shows that we have been up for 45 minutes. "Let's head back to the airport and try a few landings., Remember the stick is in your lap for tail wheel steering."
"No problem" came the student's reply with his confidence at mastering the loop and roll.
Final approach looks good. The plane feels solid near the ground in ground affect. I watch as the control stick in the back seat slowly mirrors the student's control stick movement in the front seat. The wheels gently kiss the pavement of the runway as my student turns around to look at me in the back seat.
"How was that?" "Great!" came my reply as he turned around to look out of the windshield and the tiny white runway lights at the edge of the pavement leading the way to the large hanger that now filled the windshield! Back pressure on the control stick was relaxed causing the tail wheel to lift off of the ground accompanying the apparent loss of tail wheel steering! Right rudder is called for to get us back on the pavement along with the command to "Hold the stick back!" The plane was once again under control.
Wow! a loop, spin, roll, Cuban Eight, and landings that required expert directional control until the plane has ended flight and been tied down! In our world of instant gratification, a world of GPS, auto-pilot linked to a computer, tri-cycle landing gear airplanes with a small distance between the nose wheel and main landing gear giving less of a twisting moment than that long space between main gear and tail wheel, and the technology that makes common things like having to fly an airplane a thing of the past Einstein may have hit on something. He may not be correct about "the world will have a generation of idiots," but he may be spot on when he stated: "I fear the day that technology will surpass our human interaction."
Rob Mixon is a Certified Flight Instructor with Airline Transport Pilot Rating. His 20,000 hours of flight time include MES, MEL, SEL, and Glider ratings. He was awarded FSDO Miami Flight Instructor of the Year and has also achieved the Wright Brothers Award for 50 years of accident free flying. Learn more at www.betterpilot.com.
Using YouTube Videos as Teaching Aids
Posted on October 30th, 2012 - By Alexander Burton BA, MSc, ATPL, Selair Pilots Association, Abbotsford, BC, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
“Good teaching is one-forth preparation and three-fourths theatre.”
Individuals and a number of well funded institutions with experienced, professional staff have entered into the field of producing aviation related and focused training videos for various aspects of aviation and have made these resources available at no cost via YouTube. Instructors are beginning to incorporate and use these materials in their ground school and flight training programs with excellent results.
Many of the videos available for free via YouTube are one-off adventures highlighting particular events or moments; some are well researched, well orchestrated materials specific to training. Both of these types of materials can be very useful to pilots, pilots-in-training and instructors.
Many pilots continue to be interested in improving their skills and knowledge but may not be able or willing to target personal funding to avail themselves of additional training materials which can represent considerable investment. Most smaller flight training units do not have the resources, personnel or funding to produce training materials of the quality and depth now available for free on the internet. The production and availability of these materials can be of tremendous benefit to the aviation training community by making high quality training materials available to anyone with a basic computer and access to the internet.
In aviation, it is extremely difficult to know too much. Talking advantage of the wisdom and experience of others is an excellent plan, regardless of where on the learning progress continuum we may find ourselves.
One excellent example of a one-off production is a video filmed by the passengers of a beautifully restored Stinson 108 attempting a high density altitude takeoff resulting in a subsequent crash. It is a unique, first-hand account of an accident filmed from the cockpit. No doubt the intention of the videographers was not to film the sequence of events leading up to and progressing through the accident and its aftermath, but that is what was achieved.
The video provides an outstanding learning/teaching aid for exploring the challenges of high density altitude operations and the inherent risks involved. It is also an excellent, “set-the-stage” teaching aid to kick off a discussion and exploration of the pilot decision making process, the importance of incorporating SOPs into our practice, and flying techniques required to mitigate risk in potentially difficult situations. In this particular case, for example, failure to properly lean the engine to achieve full power on takeoff was, most likely, a contributing factor to the end result as was the failure to establish a go/no go point prior to initiating the takeoff roll.
To view the video on YouTube, visit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDu0jYiz-v8.
I have made use of this little video in both private and commercial ground schools with excellent results. The video provides a rare, “you are there”, view of the events: the difficulties experienced by the pilot on takeoff, the failure to achieve altitude, and the subsequent crash in rising terrain.
Prior to showing the film, I will normally have covered the basic groundwork of defining and calculating density altitude, exploring the takeoff and performance charts and tables provided in the aircraft POH, and working through various example problems involving aircraft performance from various airports and aerodromes for which information is available to the students. A discussion regarding pilot decision making, SOPs, and the importance of appreciating the concept of accelerate stop distance and risk mitigation will also be included in the lead up to viewing the film.
Once students have a basic understanding of density altitude and its effects on aircraft performance, pilot decision making models, and risk mitigation based on a reasonable understanding of aircraft performance in various conditions, I will show the film as a good starter for discussion and exploration.
I find giving students an opportunity to see, as though they were sitting in the cockpit of the aeroplane, the full sequence of the accident provides an excellent motivation to, “dig in” and analyze the various factors leading to the accident and to focus on how such events can be prevented.
On a broader scale, there are a number of excellent video series productions, available on YouTube, created specifically for flight training. As examples, I have found the materials produced by the University of North Dakota aviation program and, the series produced by Mr. Ray Preston, former Chief Flight Instructor at Selkirk College, very useful.
The University of North Dakota is one of the leading university aviation programs in North America. They have created a series of training videos which are well organized, well presented and very useful both for training and for increasing pilot knowledge. While some of the references in this series of excellent videos are specific to the UND training program and UND SOPs, I highly recommend an exploration of these materials to pilots, pilots-in-training, and instructors. I use a variety of these materials both in ground school and for flight training and believe they have been extremely helpful both for pilots-in-training and for me as an instructor. The topics covered in this series extend from ab initio through advanced training. To explore this series of videos, visit: http://www.youtube.com/user/undaerocast?feature=watch.
For instructors interested in anything from executing normal landings, dealing with wake turbulence or successfully completing an ILS approach, these videos can be an excellent resource.
Mr. Ray Preston, former Chief Flight Instructor at Selkirk College, has produced a series of videos designed specifically to help teach initial instrument rating candidates the theory and procedures of using GPS to execute that difficult manoeuvre, the hold. The videos take a detailed and in-depth look at using GPS to facilitate hold entry and maintenance of a successful hold, including compensating for various wind conditions. For both students in the process of learning instrument procedures and instructors involved in teaching these sometimes complex procedures, this series of videos is an outstanding resource. To explore this series of videos, visit: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4H7QcWCDIzQ.
These examples do not in any fashion represent the totality of the resources available; I encourage pilots, pilots-in-training, and instructors to investigate the wide variety of available materials that may be useful and helpful to their specific purposes.
The availability of valuable and free materials that can be used to enhance and personalize a learning environment and program with very positive results is growing. While the materials themselves do not provide a full learning environment, incorporating them as part of a lesson can assist an instructor to provide students with an experiential and personalized component. It may not quite be quite as effective as actually having an experience, but it may allow us, as instructors, to come much closer to achieving, in a classroom environment, a very positive and productive learning environment.
Editor’s Comment: Here are four more free training videos available on the Internet. Submit a training practice telling your peers how you use one of these (or other pilot training videos) when instructing your students: