According to 14 CFR 61.51(h) Logging training time.....
1. A person may log training time when that person receives training from an authorized instructor in an aircraft , full flight simulator, flight training device, or aviation training device.
2. The training time must be logged in a logbook and must:
(i) Be endorsed in a legible manner by the authorized instructor; and
(ii) Include a description of the training given, the length of the training lesson, and the authorized instructor's signature, certificate number, and certification expiration date.
Oddly enough, I have had several applicants show up for check rides missing the items described in 2 (ii). It is part of the DPEs job to insure the applicant meets the training requirements of Part 61. Without a legible description of the training given along with the CFI signature, cert number and expiration date, they can't verify the training has been done. The DPE can't do the check ride until this is fixed.
I've had several recent applicants show up missing the required endorsements and/or having the correct endorsements. The most common missing endorsement is the one required by 61.39. Its required for every check ride. The second missing/incorrect endorsement is the one required for an additional category and/or class rating. This is referenced in 61.63.
AC 61.65 H includes all the endorsements required in flight training. To make your life and the DPE's job easier, just copy the endorsements right out of the AC. You cant go wrong that way.
There are a variety of electronic log books out there. All of them have different options and pluses and minuses. I don't have a preference on any of them.
From a check ride prospective, a pilot examiner must determine the applicant meets the requirements for the certificate and/or rating applying for. Flight and ground training must be logged in a log book (or training record) with a description of the training and the signature and certificate number of the CFI.
I've had a couple of applicants show up with an electronic log book. Nothing wrong with that. However, the entries for the training flights did not include a description of the training and, in one case, missing the signature and certificate number of the instructor.
Also, ground instruction is required to be logged as well. I'm not sure how this can be logged in a electroic log but an examiner will be looking for that too.
Please clean the windshield. Its really hard to see traffic through bug guts and the glare of the sun.
Get a few DPEs together and we start telling war stories of past check rides and near death experiences. We are old and feeble and barely remember what we had for breakfast let alone what really happen three weeks ago but some elements of truth and commonality pop out in these stories.
Recent stories about entering and leaving towered and non tower traffic patterns have been making there rounds. Stuff like making right traffic at left traffic airports. calling in the wrong position in the pattern (or making the all to common call "turning left final runway XX), not following ATC instructions or telling ATC your east of the field when you are west, cutting off other aircraft in the pattern, landing downwind. The list goes on...
I can tell you to read and follow the regs and the advice in the AIM but I'll add a couple other thoughts.
1. Don't go near the airport until you are ready. Find the airport, get the ATIS or AWOS, figure out the active runway and the easiest way to enter the pattern. Take the time and THINK.
2. Double check your position from the airport before calling in. This is important! ATC needs to know your location to figure out how to sequence you into the pattern and keep you separated from others. At non towered airports, other aircraft need to develop the big picture too. Incorrectly announcing your position in relation to airport, runway or traffic pattern is a set up for a midair collision.
3. Keep your head on a swivel. You may be doing everything right but the other guy may not. If there is conflict in the air, its best to stay out of it.
A few years ago, an airliner got lost on an airport on a low IFR day. There was confusion on the frequency between the airliner and ATC. Thinking the Airliner was clear of the runway, ATC cleared another airplane for take-off. That pilot (hearing the confusion on the freq) declined the take-off clearance until ATC and the airliner knew where each other was at. Good thing this pilot declined the clearance. The airliner had made a wrong turn and was actually on the departure runway of the other aircraft. It would have been a disaster.
Most check rides start with a cross country. Why is it that the majority of applicants fail to set up and use their GPS (or other Navigation equipment) for that cross country?
My advice, do what you would do in real life. If you normally fly using that GPS, then use it for the check ride. Don't start yourself off with a disadvantage! If the examiner needs to see you navigate without it, he/she will fail it at some point.
I love all the new gadgets we have available to us. I recently added dual Garmin G5's and the G500 autopilot to my 182. Combined with ADSB In and Out, I now have traffic and various forms of weather products. Even if you're not flying a nicely equipped airplane, you can have the same features with Foreflight, WingX Pro, Garmin Pilot and some sort of ADSB receiver. All of this stuff is supposed to enhance situational awareness and safety. For the most part, it does but it can have a real negative effect on safety as well. People much smarter than me have written books on the subject. I would like to cover a couple of items that have played a major issue during check rides.
The first issue is not knowing how to use those gadgets. Lets take Foreflight or Garmin Pilot for example. Do you know where to find Hot Spots or how to determine the the altitudes of an MOA, Restricted or Prohibited Area? How did that App figure out that ground speed? Did you input that data for your airplane or did you select the basic (generic) profile? What power setting will achieve that TAS?
Regarding the Airplane itself. How do you determine if the data bases are current on your GPS? In a twin engine airplane, can we use the autopilot with an engine inop? If you're a private pilot pilot, do you even know how to use the autopilot. Do you know what the failure modes are for your MFD, PFD and how they present themselves? Can you fix them in flight or are you stuck with the backup instruments?
Those are knowledge areas we should have tucked safely in our brain just in case a bad situation presents itself. Imagine being a newly minted private pilot in an inadvertent IMC situation and not knowing how to use that autopilot.
The second issue that crops up is fixation on the equipment and not flying the airplane. Put yourself cruising along at 3500 feet when the engine suddenly runs rough or fails. What's the first thing you do? Is it go to Foreflight, go to Maps, then settings and then select "Glide Advisor" to On? Or is it select Nearest on the Garmin 430? I would certainly hope NOT! First and foremost, Fly the freaking Aircraft!
I've recently had a couple of private pilot applicants do just as described in the previous paragraph. While they focused their attention elsewhere, they failed to establish and maintain Best Glide, select and glide to a landing area and failed to trouble shoot the problem until they where to low to safely land.
In the past there use to be a saying "Don't drop the airplane to fly the mike." Pilots would get so involved with talking with ATC they would stop flying the airplane. Now it seems that we are dropping the airplane to fly the iPad (or what ever fancy fancy equipment the pilot is fixated on).
Now before I have a flood of folks saying Chris doesn't want you using this or that, I'll say this; We need to have a healthy balance on knowing how to use our fancy equipment and flying the airplane. That fancy equipment should enhance our performance as a pilot and not be a distraction.
I tend to ask a lot basic (or fundamental) questions on check rides. Stuff a pilot really should know. Lately, I've had several applicants fumble on a few basic flight planning questions. It hasn't just been private applicants but commercial and flight instructor applicant as well. So what are the questions? here they are .......
1. Explain to me how you determined your power setting and what true airspeed and fuel burn that will yield.
2. Is that with the mixture leaned? If so, How do you lean the mixture?
Commercial Pilot Applicants. Did you know that Area of Operations (AOO) VIII, Task B requires you to know about Pressurization? Remember an examiner has to test all the skills and at least one Knowledge and one Risk Management item? A basic question might be; Explain how a typical pressurization works. That question may lead into a scenario to test other Tasks with in AOO VIII
Multi Engine Check rides: Way to many applicants identifying and feathering the wrong failed engine. Slow Down and fly the airplane. You know what that means dont you?
Also when you experience and engine failure on departure you must maintain Vyse. In most situations, that means you must lower the nose to do that. When the engine fails, you will lose a lot of airspeed quickly. That will probably put you very close to Vmc and lead to a lose of directional control.
Engine failure during cruise: Maintain your altitude while you do the engine out drill until the airplane slows to Vyse. If you cant hold Vyse without losing altitude then let the airplane drift down at Vyse. Of course if you have enough power to maintain altitude and an airspeed at or above Vyse, then do so.
Engine out Instrument approaches: Set up your approach and get it stabilized! Fly it like you only got one chance at doing it right. In real life you may not be able to go around and try it again.
All check rides: I am still seeing to many applicant show up not qualified or lacking the proper endorsements for the check ride. This is purely the instructors fault. Why do I say that? In the Regulations the instructor signs off the student as meeting the requirements of the regulations and attest to giving the training required. The FAA doesn't make it any more clearer that that.
Acute fatigue: How you physically and mentally feel at the end of a long day.
Chronic fatigue: Long-term fatigue which has serious physiological and psychological effects.
Performance degradation due to acute fatigue can be correlated to blood alcohol level.
The longer a person is awake, the sleep urge and need becomes stronger. The pressure to sleep grows more intense as the day progresses, then dissipates when one sleeps at night.
As one extends wakefulness into routine sleep hours, the urge to sleep increases. The primary factor that affects alertness is the number of hours continuously awake. At about the 16 hour mark, sleepiness begins to affect performance of the average individual.
Studies show that after 18 hours of wakefulness, participants showed a 30% decrement in performance and problem-solving ability.
Chronic fatigue can be caused by multiple back-to-back long days with less than the required sleep each night. This leads to serious performance degradations. Performance degradations include the following:
,I do a lot of Multi engine ratings in several types of airplanes from several schools. It's amazing how differently things get taught between different schools using the same airplane. As I posted in the Commercial Single Engine earlier, I encourage everyone to review the appropriate ACS and the Airplane Flying Handbook.
I also encourage everyone to use and follow the emergency procedures as described in the airplane POH. I have seen several applicants deviate from the check list and unfortunately screw things up to the point that the airplane is no longer in their control. Even a few applicants have failed to use the checklist other than for the run up. Using the checklist is a part of good Airmanship.
Here's one situation that continually creeps up on multi engine rides. The applicant straight and level at 5000 feet when an engine fails. As they go threw the engine out drill they let the altitude and or heading drift outside of ACS tolerances. The applicant is so focused on the engine failure that they for get to fly the airplane. So hold heading and altitude while you do the engine out drill. If you are above the single engine service ceiling, hold altitude until the airplane slows down to Vyse and then allow it to drift down at Vyse.
Another problem area is shooting the engine out instrument approach. I usually ask what speed and configuration you will fly this approach at. Unfortunately, most fail to fly what they tell me they will. The biggest issue is they are usually 20 to 30 kts too fast. The second issue is they fail to maintain vertical and lateral guidance within ACS requirements. I recommend developing a profile that uses minimum work load to fly a stabilized approach at Vyse+10 kts (no slower than Vyse) with the gear down and no more than 10-15 degrees of flap.
Last piece of advice....Above all else.....Fly the Airplane!